The Czechoslovakian fortifications 1935 – 1938 


The Czechoslovakian fortifications built in the years 1935 – 1938 along the boarder of the former Czechoslovakia, belonged to a most flawless fortress defense systems in Europe. The designed fortification consisted of the line of light objects ( LO) and heavy objects ( HO).

The light line was made of the simple little forts with one or two little firing rooms by the model and type of the object. Some of them were different in details according to a surrounding terrain and combat purpose of the installation.

The heavy fortification consists of the individual installations or artillery forts. The individual installations are different from each other in resistance, looks and the inside layout. Many aspects were taken into consideration while the planning was going on, for example the shape of the surrounding terrain and strategic importance of the area. The installations were then situated and armed according to this.

The resistance of the individual installations HO depended, apart from other things on the terrain and the measure of forestation of the area. The installations are then divided according to resistance, into Arabian ( 1 and 2) and Roman ( I, II, III and IV). The highest resistance IV was assigned mainly for the construction of the artillery forts.

The artillery forts were planned and constructed as a group of the infantry, artillery and mortar log cabins interconnected with each other by the underground passage ways. Because of the financial and construction difficulties, the forts were built only in the most endangered sections of the of the fortification line. The surface of the fortifications between the individual log cabins was the same as most of the area between the individual installations HO protected by an ingenuous system of the anti-tank and anti-infantry barriers.

The two out of the 15 originally planned forts were cancelled and one was postponed. Five forts were finished, four remained under construction and the rest was not even started by September 1938. After the Munich agreement, the fortification was cleared out and the construction was stopped. After that, the fortifications survived in various stages until the present.